THE LIFE OF GENERAL ULYSSES S. Bound in the original Victorian Binding. An important addition to any fine library! This First Edition will make an excellent gift.
FIRST EDITION/FIRST PRINTING of the Life of General Ulysses Grant. In Very Good condition for being over 130 years old. Excellent condition, a lot of generalized wear, a little loose from usage, some minor thumbing dirt, overextended gatherings, but very intact. Small closed tear to the tissue paper.No writing or previous signs of ownership. A gorgeous book bound in the original Victorian binding. FIRST EDITION / FIRST PRINTING. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 18th president of the United States.
For others with the same name, see Ulysses S. For other uses, see General Grant (disambiguation). 18th President of the United States. March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877. Acting United States Secretary of War.
August 12, 1867 January 14, 1868. 6th Commanding General of the United States Army.March 9, 1864 March 4, 1869. April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio. July 23, 1885 (aged 63) Wilton, New York.
This article is part of a series about. Grant born Hiram Ulysses Grant. April 27, 1822 July 23, 1885 was an American soldier, politician, and international statesman who served as the 18th president of the United States.During the American Civil War. Grant, with President Abraham Lincoln. To victory over the Confederacy.
President Grant led the Republicans. In their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism, racism, and slavery. From early childhood in Ohio. Grant was a skilled equestrian.
Who had a talent for taming horses. He graduated from West Point. In 1843 and served with distinction in the MexicanAmerican War. Upon his return, Grant married Julia Dent. And together they had four children.
In 1854, Grant abruptly resigned from the army. He and his family struggled financially in civilian life for seven years.
Broke out in 1861, Grant joined the Union Army and rapidly rose in rank to general. Grant was persistent in his pursuit of the Confederate enemy, winning major battles and gaining Union control of the Mississippi River. In March 1864, President Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General, a rank previously reserved for George Washington. For over a year Grant's Army of the Potomac. Fought the Army of Northern Virginia.
On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated.Grant continued his service under Lincoln's successor President Andrew Johnson. And was promoted General of the Army in 1866. Disillusioned by Johnson's conservative approach to Reconstruction. Grant drifted toward the "Radical" Republicans.
Elected the youngest 19th Century president in 1868, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice. And prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan.
In 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission. United behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's new Peace Policy for Native Americans had both successes and failures. Grant's administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims. But Congress rejected his Dominican annexation.
Grant's presidency was plagued by numerous public scandals, while the Panic of 1873. Plunged the nation into a severe economic depression. After Grant left office in March 1877, he embarked on a two-and-a-half-year world tour.That captured favorable global attention for him and the United States. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe investment reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs. Which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. Of Grant's legacy have varied considerably over the years. Historians have hailed Grant's military genius, and his strategies. Are featured in military history textbooks.
Stigmatized by multiple scandals, Grant's presidency has traditionally been ranked. Modern scholars have shown greater appreciation for his achievements that included civil rights enforcement and have raised his historical reputation.
Grant has been regarded as an embattled president who performed a difficult job during Reconstruction. Early military career and personal life. West Point and first assignment.
Belmont, Forts Henry and Donelson. Overland Campaign and Petersburg Siege. Later Reconstruction and civil rights.Proposed annexation of Dominican Republic. Gold standard and gold conspiracy. Election of 1872 and second term.
Panic of 1873 and loss of Congress. Business reversals, speculation and confidence men.Further information: Early life and career of Ulysses S. Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio.
Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio. On April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant.
And merchant, and Hannah Grant (née Simpson). Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War. And his grandfather, Noah, served in the American Revolution. Afterward, Noah settled in Pennsylvania. And married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish.
Their son Jesse (Ulysses's father) was a Whig Party. Supporter and a fervent abolitionist. Jesse Grant moved to Point Pleasant in 1820 and found work as a foreman in a tannery. He soon met his future wife, Hannah, and the two were married on June 24, 1821.Hannah descended from Presbyterian immigrants. Ten months after she was married, Hannah gave birth to her's and Jesse's first child, a son. At a family gathering several weeks later the boy's name, Ulysses, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. Wanting to honor his father-in-law, who had suggested Hiram, Jesse declared the boy to be Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses. In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, Ohio. Where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Clara, Orvil, Jennie, and Mary. At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and later in two private schools.
In the winter of 18361837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary. And in the autumn of 1838, he attended John Rankin. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to ride and manage horses.Since Grant expressed a strong dislike for the tannery his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people. Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist. For the rest of his life, he prayed privately and never officially joined any denomination.
To others, including late in life, his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic. He inherited some of Hannah's Methodist piety. Grant was largely apolitical before the war but wrote, If I had ever had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs.
I was raised in that school. Second lieutenant Grant in full dress uniform in 1843. Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L. Requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States Military Academy.
(USMA) at West Point, New York. When a spot opened in March 1839, Hamer nominated the 16-year-old Grant.
He mistakenly wrote down Ulysses S. Grant, which became his adopted name because West Point could not change the name of the appointee. Initially reluctant because of concerns about his academic ability, Grant entered the academy on July 1, 1839, as a cadet. And trained there for four years.
His nickname became "Sam" among army colleagues since the initials U. " also stood for " Uncle Sam. Initially, Grant was indifferent to military life, but within a year he reexamined his desire to leave the academy and later wrote that "on the whole I like this place very much". While at the Academy, his greatest interest was horses, and he earned a reputation as the "most proficient" horseman. During the graduation ceremony, while riding York , a large and powerful horse Grant managed well, he set a high-jump record that stood for 25 years.
Seeking relief from military routine, he studied under Romantic. He spent more time reading books from the library than his academic texts, frequently reading works by James Fenimore Cooper.Quiet by nature, Grant established a few intimate friends among fellow cadets, including Frederick Tracy Dent. He was inspired both by the Commandant, Captain Charles F. And by General Winfield Scott.
Who visited the academy to review the cadets. Grant later wrote of the military life, there is much to dislike, but more to like. Grant graduated on June 30, 1843, ranked 21st out of 39 alumni. And was promoted on July 1 to the rank brevet second lieutenant. Small for his age at 17, he had entered the academy weighing only 117 pounds at five feet two inches tall; upon graduation four years later he had grown to a height of five feet seven inches.Glad to leave the academy, he planned to resign his commission after his four-year term of duty. Grant would later write to a friend that among the happiest days of his life was the day he left the presidency and the day he left the academy. Despite his excellent horsemanship, he was not assigned to the cavalry, but to the 4th Infantry Regiment. Grant's first assignment took him to the Jefferson Barracks. Commanded by Colonel Stephen W.
The barracks was the nation's largest military base in the west. Grant was happy with his new commander but looked forward to the end of his military service and a possible teaching career.
In Missouri, Grant visited Dent's family and became engaged to his sister, Julia. Four years later on August 22, 1848, they were married at Julia's home in St. Grant's abolitionist father Jesse, who disapproved of the Dents owning slaves, refused to attend their wedding, which took place without either of Grant's parents. Grant was flanked by three fellow West Point graduates, all dressed in their blue uniforms, including Longstreet, Julia's cousin.At the end of the month, Julia was nevertheless warmly received by Grant's family in Bethel, Ohio. They had four children: Frederick. Louis when he decided, with a wife to support, that he would remain in the army. After rising tensions with Mexico following the United States' annexation of Texas. War broke out in 1846.
During the conflict, Grant distinguished himself as a daring and competent soldier. Before the war President John Tyler. Had ordered Grant's unit to Louisiana as part of the Army of Observation.Under Major General Zachary Taylor. In September 1846, Tyler's successor, James K. Unable to provoke Mexico into war at Corpus Christi, Texas. Ordered Taylor to march 150 miles south to the Rio Grande. Marching south to Fort Texas.
To prevent a Mexican siege, Grant experienced combat for the first time on May 8, 1846, at the Battle of Palo Alto. Grant was tapped to serve as regimental quartermaster. But yearned for a combat role; when finally allowed, he led a cavalry charge at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. He demonstrated his equestrian ability at the Battle of Monterrey. By carrying a dispatch past snipers while hanging off the side of his horse, keeping the animal between him and the enemy.
Before leaving the city he stopped at a house occupied by wounded Americans, giving them assurance he would send for help. Polk, wary of Taylor's growing popularity, divided his forces, sending some troops (including Grant's unit) to form a new army under Major General Winfield Scott. Traveling by sea, Scott's army landed at Veracruz. And advanced toward Mexico City.
The army met the Mexican forces at the battles of Molino del Rey. For his bravery at Molino del Rey, Grant was brevetted. First lieutenant on September 30. At San Cosmé, men under Grant's direction dragged a disassembled howitzer. Into a church steeple, reassembled it, and bombarded nearby Mexican troops.
His bravery and initiative earned him his second brevet promotion to captain. On September 14, 1847, Scott's army marched into the city; Mexico ceded. The vast territory, including California.During the war, Grant established a commendable record, studied the tactics and strategies of Scott and Taylor, and emerged as a seasoned officer, writing in his memoirs that this is how he learned much about military leadership. In retrospect, although he respected Scott.
He identified his leadership style with Taylor's. However, Grant also wrote that the Mexican war was morally unjust and that the territorial gains were designed to expand slavery, stating, I was bitterly opposed to the measure...
And to this day, regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. He opined that the Civil War was divine punishment on the U. For its aggression against Mexico. During the war, Grant discovered his "moral courage" and began to consider a career in the army.
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were harmless. Grant's first post-war assignments took him and Julia to Detroit. On November 17, 1848, but he had been replaced and was sent instead to Madison Barracks. A desolate outpost in upstate New York, in bad need of supplies and repair. After four months, Grant was sent back to his quartermaster job in Detroit.When the discovery of gold in California. Brought droves of prospectors and settlers to the territory, Grant and the 4th infantry were ordered to reinforce the small garrison there. Grant was charged with bringing the soldiers and a few hundred civilians from New York City to Panama, overland. To the Pacific and then north to California. Julia, eight months pregnant with Ulysses Jr. While Grant was in Panama, a cholera.
Epidemic broke out and claimed the lives of many soldiers, civilians, and children. In Panama City, Grant established and organized a field hospital and moved the worst cases to a hospital barge one mile offshore.When orderlies protested having to attend to the sick, Grant did much of the nursing himself, earning high praise from observers. In August, Grant arrived in San Francisco. His next assignment sent him north to Vancouver Barracks. To supplement his meager salary, Grant tried several business ventures. They failed, confirming his father's belief that he had no head for business. Grant assured Julia in a letter that the local Indians were harmless, while he developed an empathy for the plight of Indians from the "unjust treatment" by white men. On August 5, 1853, Grant was assigned to command Company F, 4th Infantry. At the newly constructed Fort Humboldt. He arrived at the fort on January 5, 1854, and reported to its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Grant was bored and depressed about being separated from his wife, and he began to drink. An officer who roomed with Grant reported the affair to Colonel Buchanan, who reprimanded Grant for one drinking episode. Grant told Buchanan if he did not reform, he would resign. On Sunday, Grant was again rumored to have been found at his company's pay table influenced by alcohol. Keeping his pledge to Buchanan, Grant resigned, effective July 31, 1854, without explanation. Buchanan endorsed Grant's letter of resignation but did not submit any report that verified the incident. Grant was neither arrested nor faced court-martial, while the War Department stated, Nothing stands against his good name. Grant said years later, the vice of intemperance (drunkenness) had not a little to do with my decision to resign. Louis and reunited with his family, uncertain about his future.
"Hardscrabble", the farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. At age 32, with no civilian vocation, Grant needed work to support his growing family. It was the beginning of seven financially lean years. His father offered him a place in the Galena, Illinois.
Branch of the family's leather business on condition that Julia and the children stay with her parents in Missouri or with the Grants in Kentucky. Ulysses and Julia opposed another separation and declined the offer. In 1855, Grant farmed on his brother-in-law's property near St. Louis, using slaves owned by Julia's father.
The next year, the Grants moved to land on Julia's father's farm, and built a home called "Hardscrabble" on Grant's Farm. Julia disliked the rustic house.
Which she described as an "unattractive cabin". Devastated farmers, including Grant, who pawned his gold watch to pay for Christmas. In 1858, Grant rented out Hardscrabble and moved his family to Julia's father's 850-acre plantation. That fall, after a bout of malaria.The same year, Grant acquired a slave from his father-in-law, a thirty-five-year-old man named William Jones. Louis, taking on a partnership with Julia's cousin Harry Boggs working in the real estate business as a bill collector, again without success, and at Julia's recommendation he dissolved his partnership. In August, Grant applied for a position as county engineer, believing his education qualified him for the job. His application came with thirty-five notable recommendations, but Grant correctly assumed the position would be given on the basis of political affiliation and was passed over by the Free Soil. County commissioners because he was believed to share his father-in-law's Democratic.
In the 1856 presidential election, Grant cast his first presidential vote. Later saying he was really voting against Republican John C. Over concern that his anti-slavery position would lead to southern secession and war and because he considered Frémont to be a shameless self-promoter.
Although Grant was not an abolitionist. He was not considered a "slavery man", and could not bring himself to force slaves to do work. In April 1860, Grant and his family moved north to Galena, accepting a position in his father's leather goods business run by his younger brothers Simpson and Orvil.
In a few months, Ulysses paid off the debts he acquired in Missouri. Ulysses and family attended the local Methodist church and he soon established himself as a reputable citizen of Galena. For the 1860 election, he could not vote because he was not yet a legal resident of Illinois, but he favored Democrat Stephen A. Over the eventual winner, Abraham Lincoln.
And Lincoln over the Southern Democrat, John C. He was torn between his increasingly anti-slavery views and the fact that his wife remained a staunch Democrat. Grant and the American Civil War.On April 12, 1861, the American Civil War. Began when Confederate troops attacked Fort S. While Sherman, whom Grant named chief of the western armies, was to destroy. Would advance on Lee from the southeast, up the. Was to capture granaries and rail lines in the.
That supplied the Confederate Army. Grant commanded in total 533,000 battle-ready troops spread out over an eighteen-mile front, while the Confederates had lost many officers in battle and had great difficulty finding replacements.Grant's own popularity had risen, and there was talk that a Union victory early in the year could lead to his candidacy for the presidency. He was aware of the rumors, but had ruled out a political candidacy; the possibility would soon vanish with delays on the battlefield.
The Overland Campaign was a series of brutal battles fought in Virginia for seven weeks during May and June 1864. Sigel's and Butler's efforts failed, and Grant was left alone to fight Lee. On the morning of Wednesday, May 4, dressed in his full uniform, with sword at his side, Grant rode out from his headquarters at Culpeper. Towards Germanna Ford, mounted on his war horse, Cincinnati. That day Grant crossed the Rapidan.
Unopposed, while supplies were transported on four pontoon bridges. On May 5, the Union army attacked Lee in the Wilderness.
A three-day battle with estimated casualties of 17,666 Union and 11,125 Confederate. Rather than retreat, Grant flanked Lee's army to the southeast and attempted to wedge his forces between Lee and Richmond at Spotsylvania Court House.
Lee's army got to Spotsylvania first and a costly battle ensued, lasting thirteen days, with high casualties. On May 12, Grant attempted to break through Lee's Muleshoe salient guarded by Confederate artillery, resulting in one of the bloodiest assaults of the Civil War, known as the Bloody Angle. Unable to break Lee's lines, Grant again flanked the rebels to the southeast, meeting at North Anna. Where a battle lasted three days. Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor.Grant maneuvered his army to Cold Harbor. A vital railroad hub that linked to Richmond, but Lee's men had the defensive advantage and were already entrenched. On the third day of the thirteen-day battle, Grant led a costly assault and was soon castigated as "the Butcher" by the Northern press after taking 52,788 Union casualties; Lee's Confederate army suffered 32,907 casualties, but he was less able to replace them. This battle was the second of two that Grant later said he regretted (the other being his initial assault on Vicksburg).
Undetected by Lee, Grant moved his army south of the James River, freed Butler from the Bermuda Hundred. Virginia's central railroad hub. After crossing the James, Grant arrived at Petersburg. Beauregard defended the city, and Lee's veteran reinforcements soon arrived, resulting in a nine-month siege. Northern resentment grew as the war dragged on.Lee was forced to defend Richmond, unable to reinforce other Confederate forces. Sheridan was assigned command of the Union Army of the Shenandoah.
And Grant directed him to "follow the enemy to their death" and to destroy vital Confederate supplies in the Shenandoah Valley. When Sheridan reported suffering attacks by John S. S irregular Confederate cavalry, Grant recommended rounding up their families for imprisonment as hostages at Fort McHenry.After Grant's abortive attempt to capture Petersburg, Lincoln supported Grant in his decision to continue. Because of the high casualties, Lincoln arrived at Grant's headquarters at City Point on June 21 to assess the state of Grant's army, meeting with Grant and Admiral Porter.
By the time Lincoln departed his appreciation for Grant had grown. Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman. (far left) and Admiral Porter. At Petersburg, Grant approved a plan to blow up. Part of the enemy trenches from an underground tunnel.The explosion created a crater, into which poorly led Union troops poured. Recovering from the surprise, Confederates surrounded the crater and easily picked off Union troops within it. The Union's 3,500 casualties outnumbered the Confederates' by three-to-one; although the plan could have been successful if implemented correctly, Grant admitted the tactic had been a "stupendous failure". Rather than fight Lee in a full frontal attack as he had done at Cold Harbor, Grant continued to extend Lee's defenses south and west of Petersburg to capture essential railroad links. After the Federal army rebuilt the City Point Railroad. Grant used mortars to attack Lee's overstretched forces. Union forces soon captured Mobile Bay. And now controlled the Shenandoah Valley, ensuring Lincoln's reelection in November.
Sherman convinced Grant and Lincoln to send his army to march on Savannah. And devastate the Confederate heartland. Sherman cut a 60-mile path of destruction of Southern infrastructure unopposed, reached the Atlantic Ocean, and captured Savannah on December 22. On December 16, after much prodding by Grant, the Union Army under Thomas smashed Hood's Confederate Army at Nashville.
It was the beginning of the end for the Confederacy, with Lee's forces at Petersburg being the only significant obstacle remaining. By March 1865, Grant had severely weakened Lee's strength, having extended his lines to 35 miles. Lee's troops deserted by the thousands due to hunger and the strains of trench warfare. Grant, Sherman, Porter, and Lincoln held a conference to discuss the surrender of Confederate armies and Reconstruction.
Of the South on March 28. Main articles: Third Battle of Petersburg.
And Battle of Appomattox Court House. Surrender of General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox Court House. On April 2, Grant ordered a general assault on Lee's entrenched forces. Union troops took Petersburg and captured an evacuated Richmond. Lee and part of his army broke free and attempted to link up with the remnants of Joseph E.S defeated army, but Sheridan's cavalry stopped the two armies from converging, cutting them off from their supply trains. Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock. To carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee's choosing. Grant immediately mounted his horse, Cincinnati , and rode west, bypassing Lee's army, to join Sheridan who had captured Appomattox Station, blocking Lee's escape route. On his way Grant was hailed by a member of Meade's staff carrying a letter sent by Lee through the picket lines, informing Grant that he was ready to formally surrender. On April 9, Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court House. Upon receiving Lee's dispatch about the proposed meeting Grant had been jubilant. Although Grant felt depressed at the fall of "a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, " he believed the Southern cause was one of the worst for which a people ever fought. After briefly discussing their days of old in Mexico, Grant wrote out the terms of surrender, whereupon Lee expressed satisfaction and accepted Grant's terms.
Going beyond his military authority, Grant gave Lee and his men amnesty; Confederates would surrender their weapons and return to their homes. At Lee's request, Grant also allowed them to keep their horses, all on the condition that they would not take up arms against the United States. Grant ordered his troops to stop all celebration, saying the war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again. Confederate forces surrendered to Union forces, and the war ended on May 9, 1865.
Main article: Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. On April 14, 1865, five days after Grant's victory at Appomattox, he attended a cabinet meeting in Washington. Lincoln invited him and his wife to Ford's Theater.
But they declined as upon his wife Julia's urging, had plans to travel to Philadelphia. In a conspiracy that also targeted top cabinet members, and in one last effort to topple the Union, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth.At the theater, and died the next morning. Many, including Grant himself, thought that he had been a target in the plot. Stanton notified him of the President's death and summoned him back to Washington. As President on April 15. Attending Lincoln's funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly; he later said Lincoln was the greatest man I have ever known. Upon Johnson's assumption of the presidency, Grant told Julia that he dreaded the change in administrations; he judged Johnson's attitude toward white southerners as one that would "make them unwilling citizens", and feared that the Civil War would be revived.
Grant as commanding general, 18651869. By Ole Peter Hansen Balling.
And French troops in Mexico, enforcement of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, and supervision of Indian wars on the western Plains. Grant secured a house for his family in Georgetown Heights in 1865, but instructed Elihu Washburne that for political purposes his legal residence remained in Galena, Illinois. That same year, Grant spoke at Cooper Union. In New York in support of Johnson's presidency.Further travels that summer took the Grants to Albany, New York. Back to Galena, and throughout Illinois and Ohio, with enthusiastic receptions. On July 25, 1866, Congress promoted Grant to the newly created rank of General of the Army of the United States. Reconstruction was a turbulent period from 1863 to 1877 when former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union, and fierce controversy arose over the status of both the defeated Confederates and the newly freed ex-slaves.
In November 1865, Johnson sent Grant on a fact-finding mission to the South. Grant recommended continuation of the Freedmen's Bureau. Which Johnson opposed, but advised against using black troops, which he believed encouraged an alternative to farm labor.Grant did not believe the people of the South were ready for self-rule, and that both whites and blacks in the South required protection by the federal government. Concerned that the war led to diminished respect for civil authorities, Grant continued using the Army to maintain order.
On the same day, the Thirteenth Amendment. Was ratified, Grant filed an unconvincing and optimistic report of his tour, expressing his faith that the mass of thinking men of the South accept the present situation of affairs in good faith. Grant later disavowed the report.
In this respect Grant's opinion on Reconstruction aligned with Johnson's policy of restoring former Confederates to their positions of power, arguing that Congress should allow representatives from the South to take their seats. Grant believed the federal government was responsible to all Union Army veterans who served in the war, both white and black. Broke the fragile relationship between Grant and President Andrew Johnson. Grant was initially optimistic about Johnson, saying he was satisfied the nation had "nothing to fear" from the Johnson administration.
Despite differing styles, Grant got along cordially with Johnson, and he was allowed to attend cabinet meetings concerning Reconstruction. By February 1866, the relationship between Grant and Johnson began to break apart. Johnson opposed Grant's closure of the Richmond Examiner. Grant's team of commanders enforced the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1866. Passed over Johnson's veto.
Needing Grant's popularity, Johnson took Grant on his Swing Around the Circle. Tour, a failed attempt to gain national support for lenient policies toward the South.Grant privately called Johnson's speeches a "national disgrace" and he left the tour early. On March 2, 1867, overriding Johnson's veto, Congress passed the first of three Reconstruction Acts. Which divided the southern states into five military districts, putting in charge military officers to enforce Reconstruction policy. Protecting Grant, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act, attached to an army appropriation bill, preventing his removal or relocation, and forcing Johnson to pass orders through Grant. In August 1867, Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. A Lincoln appointee who sympathized with Congressional Reconstruction, replacing him with Grant as acting Secretary. Stanton was a Radical Republican protected by allies in Congress. Grant wanted to replace him but recommended against bypassing the Tenure of Office Act. Prohibiting a cabinet removal without Senate approval.
Grant accepted the position, not wanting the Army to fall under a conservative appointee who would impede Reconstruction, and managed an uneasy partnership with Johnson. In December 1867, Congress voted to keep Stanton, who was reinstated by a Senate Committee on Friday, January 10, 1868. Grant told Johnson he was going to resign office to avoid fines and imprisonment.Johnson said he would assume Grant's legal responsibility, and reminded Grant that he had promised him to delay his resignation until a suitable replacement was found. On Monday, January 13, Grant immediately surrendered the office to Stanton. Johnson was livid and accused Grant of lying at a stormy cabinet meeting.
The publication of angry messages between Grant and Johnson led to a complete break between the president and his general. The controversy led to Johnson's impeachment. And trial in the Senate.
Johnson was saved from removal from office by one vote. Grant's popularity rose among the Radical Republicans and his nomination for the presidency appeared certain. Main article: United States presidential election, 1868. First inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant, Capitol building steps, March 4, 1869.When the Republican Party met at the 1868 Republican National Convention. In Chicago, the delegates unanimously nominated Grant for president and Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax. Although Grant had preferred to remain in the army, he accepted the Republican nomination, believing that he was the only one who could unify the nation. The Republicans advocated "equal civil and political rights to all" and African American.
The Democrats, having abandoned Johnson, nominated former governor Horatio Seymour. (New York) for president and Francis P. The Democrats advocated the immediate restoration of former Confederate states to the Union and amnesty from "all past political offenses".Grant played no overt role during the campaign and instead was joined by Sherman and Sheridan in a tour of the West that summer. However, the Republicans adopted his words "Let us have peace" as their campaign slogan. Grant's 1862 General Order No.
Became an issue during the presidential campaign. He sought to distance himself from the order, saying I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit. The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, which alienated many War Democrats. To intimidate blacks from voting Republican, the Klan, led by former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest. Used violence and intimidation across the South in three states: Kansas, Georgia, and Louisiana.
Grant won the popular vote by 300,000 votes out of 5,716,082 votes cast, receiving an Electoral College. Landslide of 214 votes to Seymour's 80. Seymour received a majority of white votes, but Grant was aided by 500,000 votes cast by blacks.
Winning him 52.7 percent of the popular vote. At the age of 46, Grant was the youngest president yet elected, and the first president after the nation had outlawed slavery. Main article: Presidency of Ulysses S. On March 4, 1869, Grant was sworn in as the eighteenth President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. In his inaugural address, Grant urged the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment.
While large numbers of African Americans attended his inauguration. He also urged that bonds issued during the Civil War should be paid in gold and called for reform in Indian Policy while he recommended the "proper treatment" of Native Americans. And encouraged their "civilization and ultimate citizenship".
Sparked both criticism and approval. Secretary of State and John A.Washburne resigned, and Grant appointed him Minister to France. Grant then appointed former New York Senator Hamilton Fish. Rawlins died in office, and Grant appointed William W. Grant appointed New York businessman Alexander T. Secretary of Treasury, but Stewart was found legally ineligible to hold office by a 1789 law. Grant then appointed Massachusetts Representative George S. Was appointed Secretary of Navy, but he found the job stressful and resigned.
Grant then appointed New Jersey's attorney general George M. Grant appointed: former Ohio Governor Jacob D. Secretary of Interior, former Maryland Senator John Creswell. Postmaster-General, and Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar. The First Family: Ulysses and Julia Grant's family at the "summer capital" in Long Branch, New Jersey.
Grant nominated Sherman his Army successor as general-in-chief and gave him control over war bureau chiefs. When Rawlins took over the War Department.He complained to Grant that Sherman was given too much authority. Grant reluctantly revoked his own order, upsetting Sherman and damaging their wartime friendship. Grant's nomination of James Longstreet. Grant, while president, very much regretted his wartime order expelling Jewish traders, and set out to make amends. Said Grant was eager to prove he was above racism, while he appointed more Jews to public office than had any of his predecessors and, in the name of human rights, he extended unprecedented support to persecuted Jews in Russia and Romania. Attorney General who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. When Grant took office in 1869, Reconstruction. Grant advocated in his inaugural address the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment. That declared the right to vote for African Americans. Unlike Johnson, Grant's vision of Reconstruction included federal enforcement of civil rights and spoke out against voter intimidation of Southern blacks. Within a year, three remaining former Confederate states Mississippi. Were admitted to Congress, having complied with Congressional Reconstruction Acts and adopted the Fifteenth Amendment. Supported by Congress, Grant put military pressure on Georgia. The last remaining former Confederate state, to reinstate its black legislators and adopt the new amendment. Georgia complied, and on February 24, 1871 its Senators were seated in Congress. Southern Reconstructed states were controlled by carpetbaggers. Terrorist group, however, continued to undermine Reconstruction by violence and intimidation.
Grant, in 1870, signed legislation creating the Justice Department. He employed it to enforce the Reconstruction efforts in the South. On March 23, 1871, Grant asked Congress for legislation, passed on April 20, known as the Ku Klux Klan Act. That authorized the president to impose martial law. And suspend the writ of habeas corpus.
By October, Grant suspended habeas corpus in part of South Carolina and sent federal troops to help marshals, who initiated prosecutions. Grant's new Attorney General, Amos T. A former Confederate officer and now zealous civil rights attorney from Georgia, replaced Hoar. Bolstered by the Department of Justice.
And Solicitor General, he made hundreds of arrests while forcing 2,000 Klansmen to flee the state. By 1872 the Klan's power had collapsed, and African Americans voted in record numbers in elections in the South. That same year, Grant signed the Amnesty Act.Which restored political rights to former Confederates. Lacking sufficient funding, the Justice Department stopped prosecutions of the Klan by June 1873. Civil rights prosecutions continued but with fewer yearly cases and convictions.
Grant's Postmaster General John Creswell. Grant appointed Republican abolitionist and champion of black education Hugh Lennox Bond. Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place.Attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874. After the Klan's decline, a faction of southern conservatives called Redeemers.
Formed armed groups, such as the Red Shirts. Who openly used violence, intimidation, voter fraud, and racist appeals in an attempt to take control of state governments. And the ensuing depression contributed to public fatigue, and the North grew less concerned with Reconstruction. Supreme Court rulings in the Slaughter-House Cases. Restricted federal enforcement of civil rights.
In 1874, Grant ended the BrooksBaxter War. That same year, he sent troops and warships under Major General William H. To New Orleans in the wake of the Colfax massacre.
And disputes over the election of Governor William Pitt Kellogg. Grant recalled Sheridan and most of the federal troops from Louisiana. On December 31, Grant met with Sumner to gain his support for annexation. Grant was confident he had Sumner's approval, but he was wrong; the episode led to hostility between the two men.On January 10, 1870, Grant submitted the treaties to the Senate for ratification. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee rejected the treaties by a 5-to-2 vote. Grant personally lobbied senators, but despite his efforts, the Senate defeated the treaties, on June 30, by a 2828 vote whem a 2/3 majority was required.
The next day Grant fired Sumner's friend, Minister to Great Britain, John Lothrop Motley. In January 1871, Grant signed a joint resolution to send a commission to investigate annexation.For this undertaking, he chose three neutral parties, with Fredrick Douglass. Although the commission approved its findings, the Senate remained opposed, forcing Grant to abandon further efforts. Meets President Grant at the White House in 1874. American policy was to remain neutral during the Ten Years' War.
(186878), a series of long bloody revolts that were taking place in Cuba against Spanish rule. Refused to recognize the belligerence of the rebels, and in effect endorsed Spanish colonial rule there, while calling for the abolition of slavery in Cuba.Flag, carrying supplies and men to aid the insurrection. Spanish authorities executed the prisoners, including eight American citizens, and many Americans called for war with Spain. Navy Squadron warships to converge on Cuba, off of Key West. Supported by the USS Kansas.
On November 27, Fish reached a diplomatic resolution in which Spain's president, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll. Expressed his regret, surrendered the Virginius and the surviving captives. Grant and Fish secured a free trade treaty in 1875. Incorporating the Pacific islands' sugar industry into the United States' economic sphere.
Further information: Black Friday (1869). Soon after taking office Grant took conservative steps to return the nation's currency to a more secure footing. During the Civil War, Congress had authorized the Treasury. To issue banknotes that, unlike the rest of the currency, were not backed by gold or silver. On March 18, 1869, he signed the Public Credit Act of 1869.
That guaranteed bondholders would be repaid in "coin or its equivalent", while greenbacks would gradually be redeemed by the Treasury and replaced by notes backed by specie. The act committed the government to the full return of the gold standard. This followed a policy of hard currency, economy and gradual reduction of the national debt. Grant's own ideas about the economy were simple and he relied on the advice of wealthy and financially successful businessman that he courted.A cartoon showing Grant running with a bag of Treasury gold released to defeat the Gold Ring. In April 1869, railroad tycoons Jay Gould. Conspired to corner the gold market in New York, the nation's financial capital. To stop the sale of Treasury gold and raise the price, Gould and Fisk built a relationship with Grant's brother-in-law, Abel Corbin. And gained access to Grant. Butterfield was to send coded messages to Gould and Fisk to secretly alert them of Treasury gold sales by Boutwell. In mid-June, Gould personally lobbied Grant that a high price of gold would spur the economy and increase agriculture sales. Fisk played a role in August in New York, having a letter from Corbin, he told Grant his gold policy would destroy the nation. By September, Grant, who was naive in matters of finance, was convinced that a low gold price would help farmers, and the sale of gold for September was not increased. On September 23, when the gold price reached. Boutwell rushed to the White House and talked with Grant.
The following day, September 24, known as Black Friday. At Gould's Gold Room collapsed, the price of gold plummeted from 160 to.
Panic ensued, Gould and Fisk fled for their own safety, while severe economic damages lasted months. By January 1870, the economy resumed its post-war recovery.
An 1870 Congressional investigation chaired by James A. Cleared Grant of profiteering, but excoriated Gould and Fisk for their manipulation of the gold market and Corbin for exploiting his personal connection to Grant. Main article: United States presidential election, 1872.
On Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign. Grant's first administration was mixed with both success and failure. His reelection was supported by Frederick Douglass, and other prominent abolitionists, and Indian reformers. In 1871, to placate reformers, Grant created the America's first Civil Service Commission. Chaired by reformer George William Curtis.
Composed of reformers, men who supported low tariffs, and those who opposed Grant's prosecution of the Klan, broke from Grant and the Republican Party. The Liberals, who personally disliked Grant, detested Grant's alliance with Senator Simon Cameron. Considered to be spoilsmen politicians.In 1872, the Liberals nominated Horace Greeley. A leading Republican New York Tribune editor and a fierce enemy of Grant, for president, and Missouri governor B. Corruption, nepotism, and inefficiency, demanded the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, literacy tests for blacks to vote, and amnesty for Confederates. The Democrats adopted the Greeley-Brown ticket and the Liberals party platform. The opposition pushed the themes that Grant was a scandal-ridden crook and a drunkard.
The Republicans nominated Grant for reelection, with Senator Henry Wilson. Of Massachusetts replacing Colfax as the vice presidential nominee.The Republicans shrewdly borrowed from the Liberals party platform including extended amnesty, lowered tariffs, and embraced civil service reform. To placate the burgeoning suffragist. Movement, the Republicans' platform included that women's rights should be treated with respectful consideration.
To the Liberals' chagrin, Greeley made Grant's Southern policy, rather than civil service reform, the main campaign issue. He received 3.6 million (55.6%) votes to Greeley's 2.8 million votes and an Electoral College landslide of 286 to 66. A majority of African Americans in the South voted for Grant, while Democratic opposition remained mostly peaceful.Grant lost in six former slave states that wanted to see an end to Reconstruction. Grant proclaimed the victory as a personal vindication of his presidency, but inwardly he felt betrayed by the Liberals. Grant was sworn in for his second term by Salmon P.
In his second inaugural address, he reiterated the problems still facing the nation and focused on what he considered the chief issues of the day: freedom and fairness for all Americans while emphasizing the benefits of citizenship for freed slaves. Grant concluded his address with the words, "My efforts in the future will be directed towards the restoration of good feelings between the different sections of our common community".In 1873, Wilson suffered a stroke; never fully recovering, he died in office on November 22, 1875. With Wilson's loss, Grant relied on Fish's guidance more than ever. Grant continued to work for a strong dollar, signing into law the Coinage Act of 1873. Which effectively ended the legal basis for bimetallism.
The Coinage Act discontinued the standard silver dollar. And established the gold dollar. As the sole monetary standard; because the gold supply did not increase as quickly as the population, the result was deflation. Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Economic turmoil renewed during Grant's second term. In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company. A New York brokerage house, collapsed after it failed to sell all of the bonds issued by Cooke.The collapse rippled through Wall Street, and other banks and brokerages that owned railroad stocks and bonds were also ruined. Suspended trading for ten days. Grant, who knew little about finance, traveled to New York to consult leading businessmen and bankers for advice on how to resolve the crisis, which became known as the Panic of 1873. Grant believed that, as with the collapse of the Gold Ring in 1869, the panic was merely an economic fluctuation that affected bankers and brokers.
Many of the nation's railroads89 out of 364went bankrupt. Congress hoped inflation would stimulate the economy and passed what became known as the "Inflation Bill" in 1874. Told Grant a veto would hurt Republicans in the November elections. Grant believed the bill would destroy the credit of the nation, and he vetoed it despite their objections.Grant's veto placed him in the conservative faction of the Republican Party and was the beginning of the party's commitment to a gold-backed dollar. Grant later pressured Congress for a bill to further strengthen the dollar by gradually reducing the number of greenbacks in circulation. When the Democrats gained a majority in the House after the 1874 elections. Republican Congress did so before the Democrats took office. Which required gradual reduction of the number of greenbacks allowed to circulate and declared that they would be redeemed for gold beginning on January 1, 1879. Grant's presidency took place during massive post-war industrial growth, speculation and lifestyle extravagance, that fueled criminal behavior in government offices. Many charges of misconduct that Grant responded to involved financial corruption, while all of his executive departments were investigated by Congress. Grant often trusted wealthy men involved in speculation. Or wartime comrades, while he stubbornly defended cabinet members and appointees involved in corruption whom he believed innocent.
Praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules. Grant's administration had limited success with civil service reform. Grant's Secretary of Interior Jacob D. Fired unqualified clerks, implemented a merit testing system, and rebuffed mandatory party contributions. On October 3, 1870, Cox resigned office under pressure from Republican party bosses and a dispute with Grant over a patent claim.On March 3, 1871 Congress authorized Grant to create the Civil Service Commission. Grant appointed reformer George William Curtis. To head of the Commission, that advocated competitive exams, and the end of forced political payments. The Commission's rules took effect the next year, but Department heads, assistants, and higher level officials were exempted. In November 1871, Grant accepted Thomas Murphy. Grant had appointed Murphy, a Conkling ally, New York Collector.
While warehouse owner George K. Grant fired Leet, and to replace Murphy, Grant appointed another Conkling ally, Chester A. Who implemented Boutwell's reforms.
Although exonerated, Grant was derided for his association with Conkling's New York patronage machine. On March 3, 1873, Grant signed a bill that increased pay for federal employees. Decried as the Salary Grab Act. By 1873, public confidence in government rule and Congress had reached its lowest ebb in an era derisively named the Gilded Age.Scandals escalated in Grant's second term, reaching into the President's inner circle. Boutwell's assistant secretary William A. A May 1874 Congressional investigation report exposed the Sanborn Incident. While Richardson was severely condemned. When the House motioned Richardson's censure he resigned and Grant appointed him as a judge of the Court of Claims. In June, Grant signed into law another Anti-Moiety Act.
Grant replaced Richardson as Treasury Secretary with Benjamin Helm Bristow. A man known for his honesty, who began a series of reforms in the department, while tightening up its investigation force. Bristow's anti-corruption house cleaning put him in the national spotlight as another scandal was discovered in 1875.Under Bristow's direction, an investigation uncovered the notorious Whiskey Ring. Bristow informed Grant of the ring in mid-April and on May 10, Bristow struck. Cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation. Under Bristow's recommendation, federal attorney.
To prosecute the Ring in St. Louis, who indicted Grant's old friend General John McDonald, supervisor of Internal Revenue. Grant endorsed Bristow's investigation writing on a letter Let no guilty man escape... Bristow's investigation discovered Babcock received kickback payments, and that Babcock had secretly forewarned McDonald, the ring's mastermind boss, of the coming investigation.On November 22, the jury convicted McDonald. On December 9, Babcock was indicted, however, Grant refused to believe in Babcock's guilt, was ready to testify in Babcock's favor, but Fish warned that doing so would put Grant in the embarrassing position of testifying against a case prosecuted by his own administration. Instead, Grant remained in Washington and on February 12, 1876, gave a deposition in Babcock's defense, expressing that his confidence in his secretary was "unshaken".
Grant's testimony silenced all but his strongest critics. The jury acquitted Babcock, but there was enough evidence revealed that Grant reluctantly dismissed him from the White House, although Babcock kept his position of Superintendent of Public Buildings in Washington.
The Interior Department under Secretary Columbus Delano. Whom Grant appointed to replace Cox, was rife with fraud and corrupt agents and Delano was forced to resign. Surveyor General Silas Reed had set up corrupt contracts that benefited Delano's son, John Delano. Grant's Secretary Interior Zachariah Chandler.Who succeeded Delano in 1875, cleaned up corruption and reformed the department. When Grant was informed by Postmaster Marshall Jewell.
Of a potential Congressional investigation into an extortion scandal involving Attorney General George H. Wife, Grant fired Williams and appointed Edwards Pierrepont. Grant's new cabinet appointments temporarily appeased reformers.When the Democrats took control of the House in 1875, they launched a series of investigations into corruption in federal departments. Among the most damaging of the Indian Ring scandal involved Secretary of War William W. From the Fort Sill tradership. Which led to his resignation in February 1876. Belknap was impeached by the House but was acquitted by the Senate. Grant's own brother Orvil set up "silent partnerships" and received kickbacks from four trading posts. Congress discovered that Secretary of Navy Robeson had been bribed by a naval contractor, but no articles of impeachment were drawn up. In his December 5, 1876, Eighth Annual Message, Grant apologized to the nation and admitted mistakes were made: Failures have been errors of judgement, not of intent. Main article: United States presidential election, 1876. Even as Grant drew cheers at the opening of the Centennial Exposition. In May 1876, the collected scandals of his presidency, the country's weak economy, and the Democratic gains in the House led many in the Republican party to repudiate him in June. Bristow was among the leading candidates to replace him, suggesting that a large faction desired an end to Grantism. And feared that Grant would run for a third term. Ultimately, Grant declined to run, but Bristow also failed to capture the nomination, as the convention settled on Governor Rutherford B.
The Democrats nominated Governor Samuel J. Voting irregularities in three Southern states caused the election that year to remain undecided for several months. Grant told Congress to settle the matter through legislation and assured both sides that he would not use the army to force a result, except to curb violence. On January 29, 1877, he signed legislation forming an Electoral Commission.
The Commission ruled that the disputed votes belonged to Hayes; to forestall Democratic protests, Republicans agreed to the Compromise of 1877. In which the last troops were withdrawn from Southern capitals. The Republicans had won, but Reconstruction was over. According to biographer Jean Edward Smith, Grant's calm visage in the White House reassured the nation. Main article: Post-presidency of Ulysses S.
Main article: World tour of Ulysses S. Grant and Bismarck in 1878. After leaving the White House, Grant and his family stayed with Fish in Washington for two months before setting out on a world tour that lasted approximately two and a half years. Preparing for the tour, they arrived in Philadelphia on May 10, 1877, and were honored with celebrations during the week before their departure. On May 16, Grant and Julia left for England aboard the SS Indiana.
During the tour the Grants made stops in Europe, Africa, India, and points in the middle. Meeting with notable dignitaries such as Queen Victoria. Grant was the first U. President to visit Jerusalem and the Holy Land. As a courtesy to Grant by the Hayes administration.
His touring party received federal transportation on three U. Navy ships: a five-month tour of the Mediterranean. Travel from Hong Kong to China on the USS Ashuelot. And transportation from China to Japan on the USS Richmond.During the tour, the Hayes administration encouraged Grant to assume a public unofficial diplomatic role to represent the United States and strengthen American interests abroad, while resolving issues for some countries in the process. Homesick, the Grants left Japan sailing on the SS City of Tokio.
Escorted by a Japanese man-of-war, crossed the Pacific and landed in San Francisco on September 20, 1879, greeted by cheering crowds. Before returning home to Philadelphia, Grant stopped at Chicago for a reunion with General Sherman and the Army of the Tennessee. Grant's tour demonstrated to much of the world that the United States was an emerging world power.
Main article: 1880 Republican National Convention. Lampooned Grant and his associates. Led by Grant's old political ally, Roscoe Conkling.Saw Grant's renewed popularity as an opportunity to regain power, and sought to nominate him for the presidency in 1880. Opponents called it a violation of the unofficial two-term rule in use since George Washington. Grant said nothing publicly but wanted the job and encouraged his men.
Washburne urged him to run; Grant demurred, saying he would be happy for the Republicans to win with another candidate, though he preferred James G. Even so, Conkling and John A.
Began to organize delegates in Grant's favor. Convened in Chicago in June, there were more delegates pledged to Grant than to any other candidate, but he was still short of a majority vote to get the nomination. At the convention, Conkling nominated Grant with an elegant speech, the most famous line being: When asked which state he hails from, our sole reply shall be, he hails from Appomattox and its famous apple tree. With 370 votes needed for nomination, the first ballot had Grant at 304, Blaine at 284, Sherman at 93, and the rest to minor candidates.
Subsequent ballots followed, with roughly the same result; neither Grant nor Blaine could win. After thirty-six ballots, Blaine's delegates deserted him and combined with those of other candidates to nominate a compromise candidate: Representative James A. A procedural motion made the vote unanimous for Garfield, who accepted the nomination. Grant gave speeches for Garfield but declined to criticize the Democratic nominee, Winfield Scott Hancock. A general who had served under him in the Army of the Potomac.Grant gave Garfield his public support and pushed him to include Stalwarts in his administration. On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot by an assassin and died on September 19. On learning of Garfield's death from a reporter, Grant wept bitterly. Wealthy friends bought him a home on Manhattan's Upper East Side. And to make an income, Grant, Jay Gould, and former Mexican Finance Secretary Matías Romero.
Chartered the Mexican Southern Railroad. With plans to build a railroad from Oaxaca to Mexico City. Who had succeeded Garfield as president in 1881, to negotiate a free trade treaty with Mexico. Arthur and the Mexican government agreed, but the United States Senate rejected the treaty in 1883. The railroad was similarly unsuccessful, falling into bankruptcy the following year.
At the same time, Grant's son Ulysses Jr. Had opened a Wall Street brokerage house with Ferdinand Ward.
A confidence man who swindled numerous wealthy men; Ward was regarded as a rising star and the firm, Grant & Ward, was initially successful. Grant, however, warned Ward that if his firm engaged in government business he would dissolve their partnership. To encourage investment, Ward paid investors abnormally high interest, by pledging the company's securities on multiple loans in a process called rehypothecation. Ward, in collusion with banker James D. Fish, kept secret from bank examiners.Retrieved the firm's securities from the company's bank vault. When the trades went bad, multiple loans came due, all backed up by the same collateral. Historians agree that Grant was likely unaware of Ward's intentions, but it is unclear how much Buck Grant knew. In May 1884, enough investments went bad to convince Ward that the firm would soon be bankrupt.
Ward, who assumed Grant was "a child in business matters, ". Told him of the impending failure, but assured Grant that this was a temporary shortfall. Grant approached businessman William Henry Vanderbilt.Essentially penniless, but compelled by a sense of personal honor, he repaid what he could with his Civil War mementos and the sale or transfer of all other assets. Vanderbilt took title to Grant's home, although he allowed the Grants to continue to reside there, and pledged to donate the souvenirs to the federal government and insisted the debt had been paid in full. Grant was distraught over Ward's deception and asked privately how he could ever trust any human being again. In March 1885, as his health was failing, he testified against both Ward and Fish. Ward was convicted of fraud.
In October 1885, months after Grant's death, and served six and a half years in prison. After the collapse of Grant and Ward, there was an outpouring of sympathy for Grant. Grant working on his memoirs in June 1885, less than a month before his death.
Grant's funeral train at West Point, bound for New York City. Throughout his career, Grant repeatedly told highly detailed stories of his military experiences, often making slight mistakes in terms of dates and locations.
As a poor hardscrabble farmer in St. Louis just before the war, he kept his neighbors spellbound till midnight listening intently to his vivid narrations of Army experiences. In calm moments during the Civil War, he often spoke of his recent experiences, typically in terse and often eloquent language. Grant's interpretations changed over time in his letters written during the Mexican War period, there is no criticism of the war.By contrast his Memoirs are highly critical of the political aspects, condemning the war as unwarranted aggression by the United States. Grant told and retold his war stories so many times that writing his Memoirs was more a matter of repetition and polish rather than trying to recall his memories for the first time. To restore his family's income and reputation, Grant wrote several articles on his Civil War campaigns for The Century Magazine. The articles were well received by critics, and the editor, Robert Underwood Johnson. Suggested that Grant write a book of memoirs, as Sherman and others had done.
Grant's articles would serve as the basis for several chapters. In the summer of 1884, Grant complained of a sore throat but put off seeing a doctor until late October, when he learned it was cancer, possibly caused by his frequent cigar smoking.
Grant chose not to reveal the seriousness of his condition to his wife, who soon found out from Grant's doctor. Before being diagnosed, Grant was invited to a Methodist service for Civil War veterans in Ocean Grove, New Jersey. On August 4, 1884, receiving a standing ovation from more than ten thousand veterans and others; it would be his last public appearance.
In March of the following year, The New York Times. Announced that Grant was dying of cancer, and a nationwide public concern for the former president began.
Knowing of Grant and Julia's financial difficulties, Congress sought to honor him and restored him to the rank of General of the Army with full retirement pay (Grant's assumption of the presidency in 1869 had required that he resign his commission and forfeit his pension). Century magazine offered Grant a book contract with a 10 percent royalty, but Grant's friend Mark Twain.
Understanding how bad Grant's financial condition was, made him an offer for his memoirs which paid an unheard-of 75 percent royalty. To provide for his family, Grant worked intensely on his memoirs at his home in New York City. His former staff member Adam Badeau. Assisted him with much of the research, while his son Frederick.
Located documents and did much of the fact-checking. Because of the summer heat and humidity, his doctors recommended that he move upstate to a cottage. At the top of Mount McGregor. Offered by a family friend. Grant finished his memoir and died only a few days later.Grant's memoirs treat his early life and time in the MexicanAmerican War briefly and are inclusive of his life up to the end of the Civil War. The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S.
Was a critical and commercial success. The memoir has been highly regarded by the public, military historians, and literary critics.
Grant portrayed himself in the persona of the honorable Western hero, whose strength lies in his honesty and straightforwardness. He candidly depicted his battles against both the Confederates and internal army foes. Twain called the Memoirs a literary masterpiece. Given over a century of favorable literary analysis, reviewer Mark Perry.States that the Memoirs are "the most significant work" of American non-fiction. After a year-long struggle with throat cancer, surrounded by his family, Grant died at 8:08 a. In the Mount McGregor cottage on July 23, 1885, at the age of 63. Sheridan, then Commanding General of the Army, ordered a day-long tribute to Grant on all military posts, and President Grover Cleveland. Ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Grant's body on a special funeral train. Which traveled to West Point and New York City. A quarter of a million people viewed it in the two days before the funeral. Tens of thousands of men, many of them veterans from the Grand Army of the Republic.
Marched with Grant's casket drawn by two dozen black stallions. His pallbearers included Union generals Sherman and Sheridan, Confederate generals Simon Bolivar Buckner and Joseph E. Johnston, Admiral David Dixon Porter, and Senator John A. Logan, the head of the GAR.
Following the casket in the seven-mile-long (11 km) procession were President Cleveland, the two living former presidents Hayes and Arthur, all of the President's Cabinet, as well as the justices of the Supreme Court. Attendance at the New York funeral topped 1.5 million.
Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, while Grant was eulogized in the press and likened to George Washington. Grant's body was laid to rest in Riverside Park, first in a temporary tomb, and thentwelve years later, on April 17, 1897in the General Grant National Memorial. Also known as "Grant's Tomb", the largest mausoleum. Further information: Historical reputation of Ulysses S.
And Historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Commanding General Grant Constant Mayer. Have been intrigued and challenged by contradictions in Grant's life, and few presidential reputations have shifted as dramatically as his. At his death, Grant was seen as "a symbol of the American national identity and memory". Soon afterward, Grant's reputation fell as post-war efforts in late-19th-century national reconciliation took hold among whites.
Later accounts portrayed his administration as deeply corrupt; as the popularity of the pro-Confederate Lost Cause. Theory and the Dunning School. Movement grew early in the 20th century, a more negative view of Grant became common.In 1917, historian Louis Arthur Coolidge bucked the trend of negativity and said Grant's "success as President" was hardly less significant than his success at war. In 1931, historians Paxson and Bach noted that Grant's presidency had some achievements, after all. In 1934, historian Robert R. McCormick said Grant's military triumphs were neglected due in part to the "malicious and deliberate design" of Lost Cause veterans and writers. In the 1950s, historians Bruce Catton. Began a reassessment of Grant's military career, shifting the analysis of Grant as the victor by brute force to that of successful, skillful, modern strategist and commander. Said Grant's 1862 General Order No. Was the most notorious anti-Jewish official order in American history.
For his critical 1981 biography that credited Grant's initial presidential efforts on civil rights, but lamented his failure to carry out lasting progress. However, historians debate how effective Grant was at halting corruption. In the 21st century, Grant's reputation among historians has improved markedly. Opinions of Grant's presidency demonstrate a better appreciation of Grant's personal integrity, Reconstruction efforts, and peace policy towards Indians, even when they fell short. Continued this trend with a biography that historian T.Said, solidifies the positive image amassed in recent decades, blotting out the caricature of a military butcher and politically incompetent, promoted by Lost Cause and Jim Crow. Like White's book, Ron Chernow. Continued the elevation of Grant's historical reputation.
In a review of Chernow's book, former U. Offered praise for Grant's significant achievements at the end of the war and after. Noted Grant's presidential successes and his steps to modernize the presidency, he questioned whether Grant's revived reputation among scholars has been found in the popular consciousness. The scandals of the Grant administration were used to stigmatize his political reputation. Grant at the national military park in Vicksburg, MS, unveiled in 1919.Known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum. In addition to his mausoleum Grant's Tomb. In New York City there is the Ulysses S. At the foot of Capitol Hill. Created by sculptor Henry Merwin Shrady. And architect Edward Pearce Casey. And dedicated in 1922, it overlooks the Capitol Reflecting Pool. In 2015, restoration work began, which is expected to be completed before the bicentennial of Grant's birth in 2022.
Louis, and several other sites in Ohio and Illinois memorialize Grant's life. Grant Cottage State Historic Site. Preserves the house in which he completed his memoirs and died.There are smaller memorials in Chicago's Lincoln Park. And Philadelphia's Fairmount Park. Named in his honor are Grant Park. As well as several counties in western and midwestern states.
On June 3, 1891, a bronze statue of Grant by Danish sculptor Johannes Gelert. Was dedicated at Grant Park in Galena, Illinois. From 1890 to 1940, part of what is now Kings Canyon National Park.
Was called General Grant National Park , named for the General Grant sequoia. In May 2012, the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation, on the institute's fiftieth anniversary, selected Mississippi State University. As the permanent location for Ulysses S.Edited Grant's letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press. Grant's image has appeared on the front of the United States fifty-dollar bill. In 1921, the Ulysses S. Grant Centenary Association was founded with the goal of coordinating special observances and erecting monuments in recognition of Grant's historical role. The venture was financed by the minting of 10,000 gold dollars (depicted below) and 250,000 half dollars. The coins were minted and issued in 1922, commemorating the 100th anniversary of Grant's birth. Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S.
Grant, at a cottage in Mt. McGregor, New York, 1885, working on his memoirs. The 18th President of the United States.
Focused mainly on his military career during the MexicanAmerican War. And the American Civil War. And completed as he was dying of throat cancer in 1885. The two-volume set was published by Mark Twain. Shortly after Grant's death.Twain created a unique marketing system designed to reach millions of veterans with a patriotic appeal just as Grant's death was being mourned. Ten thousand agents canvassed the North, following a script that Twain had devised; many were veterans who dressed in their old uniforms. Each copy contained what looked like a handwritten note from Grant himself. Grant has been highly regarded by the general public, military historians. Positive attention is often directed toward Grant's prose, which has been praised as shrewd, intelligent, and effective. He portrayed himself in the persona of the honorable Western hero, whose strength lies in his honesty and straightforwardness. He candidly depicts his battles against both the external Confederates and his internal Army foes.
Personal Memoirs General CIVIL WAR (FIRST EDITION!) 1885 RARE" is in sale since Tuesday, July 2, 2019. This item is in the category "Books\Antiquarian & Collectible".books" and is located in Moab, Utah.This item can be shipped worldwide.