PRESIDENT & GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT #534 2018 ESI CIVIL WAR BATTLE SERIES PSA/DNA AUTOGRAPH CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC AUTOGRAPH.Beautiful Card with original one of one certified authentic signature/autograph. Authenticated and slabbed/encapsulated by PSA/DNA. Card and autograph are protected forever! Please keep in mind the expensive process of authentication which is part of the price of course.
The finest set of Civil War cards ever produced, checklist in the pictures. The pictures may have glare. Pictures are not included just the card and LOA.Verify any PSA autograph here: This cards certified authentic number is 84146783 (Which is on the front and back of the PSA label). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 18th president of the United States. For other uses, see Ulysses S. 18th President of the United States. March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877. 6th Commanding General of the U. March 9, 1864 March 4, 1869. Acting United States Secretary of War. August 12, 1867 January 14, 1868. April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio. July 23, 1885 (aged 63) Wilton, New York. This article is part of a series about. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant ; April 27, 1822 July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States. Before his presidency, Grant led the Union Army. As Commanding General of the United States Army. In winning the American Civil War.
As president, Grant worked with the Radical Republicans. To protect blacks, reestablish the public credit, while rebuilding the U. Young Grant possessed an exceptional ability.
With horses, which served him well through his military career. He was admitted to West Point. And graduated from the U.
Grant served with distinction in the MexicanAmerican War. In 1848, he married Julia Dent. And together they had four children.He joined the Union Army. In 1861, and led the Vicksburg campaign. Which gained control of the Mississippi River. After Grant's victory at Chattanooga. Promoted Grant to Lieutenant General. For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. During the high-casualty Overland Campaign.
On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox. A week later, Lincoln was assassinated.And was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson. Who promoted Grant to General of the Army. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the Reconstruction Acts. Which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for recently freed African Americans. A war hero but a reluctant politician, Grant was unanimously nominated by the Republican Party and was elected president in 1868. As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice. And prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan.
He appointed African Americans and Jewish Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, he created the first Civil Service Commission. United behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872. But Grant was handily re-elected.Grant's Native American policy had both successes and failures. In foreign affairs, the Grant administration peacefully resolved the Alabama claims. Against Great Britain, but the Senate rejected Grant's prized Caribbean Dominican Republic annexation. Corruption in federal departments was rampant; four of Grant's appointed cabinet members resigned under scandal, while many Grant appointees were fired.
But Grant also appointed reformers, for example for the prosecution of the Whiskey Ring. Plunged the nation into a severe economic depression, that allowed the Democrats to win the House majority. In the intensely disputed presidential election of 1876. Grant facilitated the approval by Congress of a peaceful compromise.
In his retirement, Grant was the first president to circumnavigate the world on his tour. Meeting with many foreign leaders. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe financial reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs.
Which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity.Historians have recognized Grant's military genius, and his modern strategies. Of warfare are featured in military history textbooks. Of Grant's presidency have improved over time. 38th in 1994 and 1996, but ranked 21st in 2018.
Several modern historians, although critical of Grant's defense of Orville Babcock. And Secretary of Interior Columbus Delano. Have emphasized Grant's presidential accomplishments including the Alabama Claims settlement, protection of African Americans. And the first Civil Service Commission. Grant, in 1872, created the world's first national park Yellowstone.Early military career and personal life. West Point and first assignment. Civilian struggles, slavery, and politics. Belmont, Forts Henry and Donelson. Election of 1872 and second term. Panic of 1873 and loss of Congress.
Further information: Early life and career of Ulysses S. Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio. On April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant. And merchant, and Hannah Simpson Grant.
Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War. And his grandfather, Noah, served in the American Revolution. Afterward, Noah settled in Pennsylvania. And married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish.Their son Jesse (Ulysses's father) was a Whig Party. Supporter and a fervent abolitionist. Jesse Grant moved to Point Pleasant in 1820 and found work as a foreman in a tannery. He soon met his future wife, Hannah, and the two were married on June 24, 1821. Hannah descended from Presbyterian immigrants. Ten months after she was married, Hannah gave birth to Ulysses, her and Jesse's first child. The boy's name, Ulysses, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. To honor his father-in-law, Jesse declared the boy named Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses. In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, Ohio. Where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Clara, Orvil, Jennie, and Mary. At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and later in two private schools.
In the winter of 18361837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary. And in the autumn of 1838, he attended John Rankin. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to ride and manage horses. Grant disliked the tannery, so his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people. Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist.
For the rest of his life, he prayed privately and never officially joined any denomination. To others, including his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic. He inherited some of Hannah's Methodist piety.Grant was largely apolitical before the war but wrote, If I had ever had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs. I was raised in that school.
Brevet Second Lieutenant Grant Published 1868. Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L.Requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States Military Academy. (USMA) at West Point, New York. Despite political differences with Jesse Root Grant, Hamer, a Democrat. Nominated his 17-year-old son to West Point in Spring 1839. Grant was accepted on July 1, although he doubted his academic abilities.
Hamer, unfamiliar with Grant, submitted an incorrect name to West Point. On September 14 Grant was enlisted Cadet.
Grant at the national academy. His nickname at West Point became "Sam" among army colleagues since the initials U." also stood for " Uncle Sam. Initially, Grant was indifferent to military life, but within a year he reexamined his desire to leave the academy and later wrote that "on the whole I like this place very much". While at the Academy, his greatest interest was horses, and he earned a reputation as the "most proficient" horseman. During the graduation ceremony, while riding York , a large and powerful horse that only Grant could manage, he set a high-jump record. That stood for 25 years. Seeking relief from military routine, he studied under Romantic.
He spent more time reading books from the library than his academic texts, including works by James Fenimore Cooper. Quiet by nature, Grant established a few intimate friends among fellow cadets, including Frederick Tracy Dent.
He was inspired both by the Commandant, Captain Charles F. And by General Winfield Scott. Who visited the academy to review the cadets. Grant later wrote of the military life, there is much to dislike, but more to like.
Grant graduated on June 30, 1843, ranked 21st out of 39 in his class and was promoted the next day to the rank brevet. Small for his age at 17, he had entered the academy weighing only 117 pounds (53 kg) at 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) tall; upon graduation four years later he had grown to a height of 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m). Grant planned to resign his commission after his four-year term of duty.
He would later write to a friend that among the happiest days of his life were the day he left the presidency and the day he left the academy. Despite his excellent horsemanship, he was not assigned to the cavalry, but to the 4th Infantry Regiment. Grant's first assignment took him to the Jefferson Barracks. Commanded by Colonel Stephen W.The barracks was the nation's largest military base in the west. Grant was happy with his new commander but looked forward to the end of his military service and a possible teaching career. In Missouri, Grant visited Dent's family and became engaged to his sister, Julia.
Four years later on August 22, 1848, they were married at Julia's home in St. Grant's abolitionist father disapproved of the Dents owning slaves, and neither of Grant's parents attended the wedding.
Grant was flanked by three fellow West Point graduates, all dressed in their blue uniforms, including Longstreet, Julia's cousin. At the end of the month, Julia was warmly received by Grant's family in Bethel, Ohio. They had four children: Frederick. Louis when he decided, with a wife to support, that he would remain in the army.
After rising tensions with Mexico following the United States' annexation of Texas. War broke out in 1846. During the conflict, Grant distinguished himself as a daring and competent soldier. Before the war President John Tyler.
Had ordered Grant's unit to Louisiana as part of the Army of Observation. Under Major General Zachary Taylor. In September 1846, Tyler's successor, James K. Unable to provoke Mexico into war at Corpus Christi, Texas. Ordered Taylor to march 150 miles south to the Rio Grande.
Marching south to Fort Texas. To prevent a Mexican siege, Grant experienced combat for the first time on May 8, 1846, at the Battle of Palo Alto.Grant served as regimental quartermaster, but yearned for a combat role; when finally allowed, he led a charge at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. He demonstrated his equestrian ability at the Battle of Monterrey. By volunteering to carry a dispatch past snipers, where he hung off the side of his horse, keeping the animal between him and the enemy. Before leaving the city he assured some wounded Americans, he would send for help. Polk, wary of Taylor's growing popularity, divided his forces, sending some troops (including Grant's unit) to form a new army under Major General Winfield Scott. Traveling by sea, Scott's army landed at Veracruz. And advanced toward Mexico City. The army met the Mexican forces at the battles of Molino del Rey. For his bravery at Molino del Rey, Grant was brevetted first lieutenant on September 30. At San Cosmé, Grant directed his men to drag a disassembled howitzer. Into a church steeple, then reassembled it and bombarded nearby Mexican troops. His bravery and initiative earned him his brevet promotion to captain. On September 14, 1847, Scott's army marched into the city; Mexico ceded the vast territory. During the war, Grant established a commendable record, studied the tactics and strategies of Scott and Taylor, and emerged as a seasoned officer, writing in his memoirs that this is how he learned much about military leadership.
In retrospect, although he respected Scott he identified his leadership style with Taylor's. However, Grant also wrote that the Mexican war was morally unjust and that the territorial gains were designed to expand slavery, stating, I was bitterly opposed to the measure...And to this day, regard the war which resulted as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. He opined that the Civil War was divine punishment on the U. For its aggression against Mexico. During the war, Grant discovered his "moral courage" and began to consider a career in the army.
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers. Grant's first post-war assignments took him and Julia to Detroit.
On November 17, 1848, but he was soon transferred to Madison Barracks. A desolate outpost in upstate New York, in bad need of supplies and repair.After four months, Grant was sent back to his quartermaster job in Detroit. When the discovery of gold in California.
Brought droves of prospectors and settlers to the territory, Grant and the 4th infantry were ordered to reinforce the small garrison there. Grant was charged with bringing the soldiers and a few hundred civilians from New York City to Panama, overland. To the Pacific and then north to California. Julia, eight months pregnant with Ulysses Jr. While Grant was in Panama, a cholera.
Epidemic broke out and claimed the lives of many soldiers, civilians, and children. Grant established and organized a field hospital in Panama City.
And moved the worst cases to a hospital barge one mile offshore. When orderlies protested having to attend to the sick, Grant did much of the nursing himself, earning high praise from observers.In August, Grant arrived in San Francisco. His next assignment sent him north to Vancouver Barracks. Grant assured Julia, by letter, they were harmless, and he developed empathy for their plight. Grant witnessed white agents cheating Indians of their supplies, and the devastation of smallpox. On August 5, 1853, Grant was assigned to command Company F, 4th Infantry.
At the newly constructed Fort Humboldt. Grant arrived at Fort Humboldt on January 5, 1854, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. A martinet officer, with whom Grant had earlier crossed paths at Jefferson Barracks. Separated from his wife and family, Grant began to drink.
Colonel Buchanan reprimanded Grant for one drinking episode and told Grant to resign or reform. " Grant told Buchanan he would "resign if I don't reform. On Sunday, Grant was found influenced by alcohol, but not incapacitated, at his company's pay table.
Keeping his pledge to Buchanan, Grant resigned, effective July 31, 1854. Buchanan endorsed Grant's letter of resignation but did not submit any report that verified the incident. Grant did not face court-martial, and the War Department said: Nothing stands against his good name. Grant said years later, the vice of intemperance (drunkenness) had not a little to do with my decision to resign.
Louis and reunited with his family, uncertain about his future. " Hardscrabble ", the farm home Grant built in Missouri. At age 32, with no civilian vocation, Grant needed work to support his growing family. It was the beginning of seven years of financial struggles, poverty, and instability. Grant's father offered him a place in the Galena, Illinois.Branch of the family's leather business, but demanded Julia and the children stay in Missouri, with the Dents, or with the Grants in Kentucky. Grant and Julia declined the offer.
In 1855, Grant farmed, using Julia's slave Dan, on his brother-in-law's property, Wish-ton-wish , near St. The next year, the Grants moved to land on Julia's father's farm, and built a home called "Hardscrabble" on Grant's Farm. Julia described the rustic house. As an "unattractive cabin", but made the dwelling as homelike as possible with the family's keepsakes and other belongings.
During the Panic of 1857. In 1858, Grant rented out Hardscrabble and moved his family to Julia's father's 850-acre plantation. That fall, after suffering from malaria. The same year, Grant acquired a slave.
From his father-in-law, a thirty-five-year-old man named William Jones. Although Grant was not an abolitionist. He was not considered a "slavery man", and could not bring himself to force a slave to do work.In March 1859, Grant freed William by a manumission. Louis, taking on a partnership with Julia's cousin Harry Boggs working in the real estate business as a bill collector, again without success and with Julia's prompting ended the partnership. In August, Grant applied for a position as county engineer, believing his education qualified him for the job.
He had thirty-five notable recommendations, but the position was given on the basis of political affiliation and Grant was passed over by the Free Soil. County commissioners because he was believed to share his father-in-law's Democratic. In the 1856 presidential election, Grant cast his first presidential vote.Later saying he was really voting against Republican John C. Over concern that his anti-slavery position would lead to Southern secession and war and because he considered Frémont to be a shameless self-promoter. In April 1860, Grant and his family moved north to Galena, accepting a position in his father's leather goods business run by his younger brothers Simpson and Orvil.
In a few months, Grant paid off his debts. The family attended the local Methodist church and he soon established himself as a reputable citizen of Galena.For the 1860 election, he could not vote because he was not yet a legal resident of Illinois, but he favored Democrat Stephen A. Over the eventual winner, Abraham Lincoln. And Lincoln over the Southern Democrat, John C. He was torn between his increasingly anti-slavery views and the fact that his wife remained a staunch Democrat. Grant and the American Civil War. 21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga. On April 12, 1861, the American Civil War. Began when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter.
The news came as a shock in Galena, and Grant shared his neighbors' concern about the war. On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers. The next day, Grant attended a mass meeting to assess the crisis and encourage recruitment, and a speech by his father's attorney, John Aaron Rawlins.Ready to fight, Grant recalled with satisfaction, I never went into our leather store again. On April 18, Grant chaired a second recruitment meeting, but turned down a captain's position as commander of the newly formed militia company, hoping his previous experience would aid him to obtain more senior military rank.
Further information: Kentucky in the American Civil War. Grant's early efforts to be recommissioned were rejected by Major General George B.
And Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon. On April 29, supported by Congressman Elihu B.
Of Illinois, Grant was appointed military aide to Governor Richard Yates. And mustered ten regiments into the Illinois militia.
On June 14, again aided by Washburne, Grant was promoted to Colonel and put in charge of the unruly 21st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Which he soon restored to good order and discipline.
Colonel Grant and his 21st Regiment were transferred to Missouri to dislodge Confederate forces. On August 5, with Washburne's aid, Grant was appointed Brigadier General of volunteers. Union commander of the West, passed over senior generals and appointed Grant commander of the District of Southeastern Missouri. On September 2, Grant arrived at Cairo, Illinois. Assumed command by replacing Colonel Oglesby.And set up his headquarters to plan a campaign down the Mississippi, and up the Tennessee, and Cumberland rivers. After the Confederates moved into western Kentucky with designs on southern Illinois, Grant, after notifying Frémont, and without waiting further for his reply, advanced on Paducah, Kentucky. Taking it without a fight on September 6. Having understood the importance to Lincoln about Kentucky's neutrality, Grant assured its citizens, I have come among you not as your enemy, but as your friend. On November 1, Frémont ordered Grant to make demonstrations.
Against the Confederates on both sides of the Mississippi, but prohibited him from attacking the enemy. Main articles: Third Battle of Petersburg.And Battle of Appomattox Court House. Surrender of General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox Court House. On April 2, Grant ordered a general assault on Lee's entrenched forces. Union troops took Petersburg and captured Richmond the next day. Lee and part of his army broke free and attempted to link up with the remnants of Joseph E. S defeated army, but Sheridan's cavalry stopped the two armies from converging, cutting them off from their supply trains. Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock. To carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee's choosing. Grant immediately rode west, bypassing Lee's army, to join Sheridan who had captured Appomattox Station, blocking Lee's escape route. On his way, Grant received a letter sent by Lee informing him that he was ready to surrender.
On April 9, Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court House. Upon receiving Lee's dispatch about the proposed meeting Grant had been jubilant. Although Grant felt depressed at the fall of "a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, " he believed the Southern cause was one of the worst for which a people ever fought. After briefly discussing their days of old in Mexico, Grant wrote out the terms of surrender. Men and officers were to be paroled, but in addition, there was amnesty: Each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by U.
Authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside. Lee expressed satisfaction and accepted Grant's terms. At Lee's request, Grant also allowed them to keep their horses. Grant ordered his troops to stop all celebration, saying the war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again.
Johnston's Tennessee army surrendered on April 26, 1865, Richard Taylor's. Alabama army on May 4, and Kirby Smith's.Texas army on May 26, ending the war. Main article: Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. On April 14, 1865, five days after Grant's victory at Appomattox, he attended a cabinet meeting in Washington. Lincoln invited him and his wife to Ford's Theater. But they declined as upon his wife Julia's urging, had plans to travel to Philadelphia.
In a conspiracy that also targeted top cabinet members in one last effort to topple the Union, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth. At the theater, and died the next morning. Many, including Grant himself, thought that he had been a target in the plot and during the subsequent trial, the government tried to prove that Grant had been stalked by Booth's conspirator Michael O'Laughlen. Stanton notified Grant of the President's death and summoned him back to Washington. As president on April 15.Attending Lincoln's funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly; he later said Lincoln was the greatest man I have ever known. Grant was determined to work with Johnson, while he privately expressed "every reason to hope" in the new president's ability of running the government in its old channel. Grant as commanding general, 18651869.
And French troops in Mexico, enforcement of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, and supervision of Indian wars on the western Plains. After the Grand Review of the Armies. Lee and his generals were indicted for treason in Virginia. Johnson demanded they be put on trial, but Grant insisted that they should not be tried, citing his Appomatox amnesty. Johnson backed down, so charges against Lee were dropped.
Grant secured a house for his family in Georgetown Heights in 1865, but instructed Elihu Washburne that for political purposes his legal residence remained in Galena, Illinois. That same year, Grant spoke at Cooper Union. In New York in support of Johnson's presidency.
Further travels that summer took the Grants to Albany, New York. Back to Galena, and throughout Illinois and Ohio, with enthusiastic receptions.
On July 25, 1866, Congress promoted Grant to the newly created rank of General of the Army of the United States. Reconstruction was a turbulent period from 1863 to 1877 when former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union, and fierce controversy arose over the status of both the defeated Confederates and the former slaves. In November 1865, Johnson sent Grant on a fact-finding mission to the South. Grant recommended continuation of the Freedmen's Bureau. Which Johnson opposed, but advised against using black troops, which he believed encouraged an alternative to farm labor.
Grant did not believe the people of the South were ready for self-rule, and that both whites and blacks in the South required protection by the federal government. Concerned that the war led to diminished respect for civil authorities, Grant continued using the Army to maintain order.On the same day that the Thirteenth Amendment. Was ratified, Grant filed an unconvincing and optimistic report of his tour, expressing his faith that the mass of thinking men of the South accept the present situation of affairs in good faith.
Grant later disavowed the report. In this respect, Grant's opinion on Reconstruction aligned with Johnson's policy of restoring former Confederates to their positions of power, arguing that Congress should allow representatives from the South to take their seats. Grant was initially optimistic about Johnson, saying he was satisfied the nation had "nothing to fear" from the Johnson administration.Despite differing styles, Grant got along cordially with Johnson, and attended cabinet meetings concerning Reconstruction. By February 1866, the relationship began to break down. Johnson opposed Grant's closure of the Richmond Examiner. For disloyal editorials and his enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Passed over Johnson's veto. Needing Grant's popularity, Johnson took Grant on his Swing Around the Circle. Tour, a failed attempt to gain national support for lenient policies toward the South. Grant privately called Johnson's speeches a "national disgrace" and he left the tour early. On March 2, 1867, overriding Johnson's veto, Congress passed the first of three Reconstruction Acts. Using military officers to enforce policy. Protecting Grant, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act, preventing his removal or relocation, and forcing Johnson to pass orders through Grant. Grant wanted to replace Edwin Stanton.
A Radical Republican, as Secretary of War, but recommended against bypassing the Tenure of Office Act. Prohibiting a cabinet removal without Senate approval. Grant accepted the position, not wanting the Army to fall under a conservative appointee who would impede Reconstruction, and managed an uneasy partnership with Johnson.
In December 1867, Congress voted to keep Stanton, who was reinstated by a Senate Committee on Friday, January 10, 1868. Grant told Johnson he was going to resign office to avoid fines and imprisonment. Johnson said he would assume Grant's legal responsibility, and reminded Grant that he had promised him to delay his resignation until a suitable replacement was found. The following Monday, Grant surrendered the office to Stanton. Johnson, with the complete backing of his cabinet, accused Grant of lying and "duplicity" at a stormy cabinet meeting, while a shocked and disappointed Grant felt it was Johnson who was lying.The publication of angry messages between Grant and Johnson led to a complete break between the two. The controversy led to Johnson's impeachment. And trial in the Senate. Johnson was saved from removal from office by one vote. Grant's popularity rose among the Radical Republicans and his nomination for the presidency appeared certain. Main article: 1868 United States presidential election. When the Republican Party met at the 1868 Republican National Convention.
In Chicago, the delegates unanimously nominated Grant for president and Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax. Although Grant had preferred to remain in the army, he accepted the Republican nomination, believing that he was the only one who could unify the nation. The Republicans advocated "equal civil and political rights to all" and African American. The Democrats, having abandoned Johnson, nominated former governor Horatio Seymour.
Of New York for president and Francis P. Of Missouri for vice president. The Democrats advocated the immediate restoration of former Confederate states to the Union and amnesty from "all past political offenses". Grant played no overt role during the campaign and instead was joined by Sherman and Sheridan in a tour of the West that summer.However, the Republicans adopted his words "Let us have peace" as their campaign slogan. Grant's 1862 General Order No. Became an issue during the presidential campaign. He sought to distance himself from the order, saying I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit. The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction intimidating Blacks, and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, alienating War Democrats.
Grant won the popular vote by 300,000 votes out of 5,716,082 votes cast, receiving an Electoral College. Landslide of 214 votes to Seymour's 80. Seymour received a majority of white votes, but Grant was aided by 500,000 votes cast by blacks. Winning him 52.7 percent of the popular vote. He lost Louisiana and Georgia primarily due to Ku Klux Klan.
At the age of 46, Grant was the youngest president yet elected, and the first president after the nation had outlawed slavery. Main article: Presidency of Ulysses S.On March 4, 1869, Grant was sworn in as the eighteenth President of the United States by Chief Justice Salmon P. In his inaugural address, Grant urged the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment.
While large numbers of African Americans attended his inauguration. He also urged that bonds issued during the Civil War should be paid in gold and called for "proper treatment" of Native Americans. And encouraged their "civilization and ultimate citizenship". Sparked both criticism and approval.
Secretary of State and John A. Washburne resigned, and Grant appointed him Minister to France.
Grant then appointed former New York Senator Hamilton Fish. Rawlins died in office, and Grant appointed William W.
Grant appointed New York businessman Alexander T. Secretary of Treasury, but Stewart was found legally ineligible to hold office by a 1789 law.
Grant then appointed Massachusetts Representative George S. Was appointed Secretary of Navy, but found the job stressful and resigned. Grant then appointed New Jersey's attorney general, George M. Former Ohio Governor Jacob D.(Interior,) former Maryland Senator John Creswell. (Postmaster-General,) and Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar. (Attorney General) rounded out the cabinet. Grant nominated Sherman to succeed him as general-in-chief and gave him control over war bureau chiefs. When Rawlins took over the War Department, he complained to Grant that Sherman was given too much authority. Grant reluctantly revoked his own order, upsetting Sherman and damaging their wartime friendship. In March 1872, Grant signed legislation that established Yellowstone National Park. Grant was sympathetic to women's rights; including support of female suffrage, saying he wanted equal rights to all citizens. Grant appointed more than fifty Jewish people to federal office, including consuls, district attorneys, and deputy postmasters.
Territorial governor of Washington, the first time an American Jewish man occupied a governor's seat. Grant was sympathetic to the plight of persecuted Jewish people.In November 1869, reports surfaced of the Russian Czar. Expelling 2,000 Jewish families to the Interior for smuggling. In response, Grant publicly supported the Jewish American B'nai B'rith petition against the Czar. In December 1869, Grant appointed a Jewish journalist as Consul to Romania. To protect Jewish people from "severe oppression".
In 1875, Grant proposed a constitutional amendment that limited religious indoctrination in public schools. Instruction of "religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets, " would be banned, while funding "for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination, " would be prohibited. Schools would be for all children irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions.
Grant's views were incorporated into the Blaine Amendment. But it was defeated by the Senate. Grant appointed Attorney General who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. Grant was considered an effective civil rights president, concerned about the plight of African Americans.On March 18, 1869, Grant signed into law equal rights for blacks, to serve on juries and hold office, in Washington D. And in 1870 he signed into law the Naturalization Act that gave foreign blacks citizenship. During his first term, Reconstruction.
Grant advocated the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment. That said states could not disenfranchise African Americans.
Within a year, the three remaining statesMississippi, Virginia, and Texasadopted the new amendmentand were admitted to Congress. Grant put military pressure on Georgia to reinstate its black legislators and adopt the new amendment. Georgia complied, and on February 24, 1871 its Senators were seated in Congress, with all the former Confederate states represented.In 1870, to enforce Reconstruction, Congress and Grant created the Justice Department. That allowed the Attorney General and the new Solicitor General to prosecute the Klan. Congress and Grant passed a series of enforcement laws, designed to protect blacks and Reconstruction governments. Grant's Justice Department did destroy the Ku Klux Klan, but in both his terms Blacks lost political strength in the Southern United States.
By October, Grant suspended habeas corpus in part of South Carolina and sent federal troops to help marshals, who initiated prosecutions. Grant's Attorney General, Amos T. Who replaced Hoar, was zealous to destroy the Klan.
Akerman and Grant appointed Solicitor General Benjamin Bristow. Made hundreds of arrests while forcing 2,000 Klansmen to flee the state. By 1872 the Klan's power had collapsed, and African Americans voted in record numbers in elections in the South. Akerman's replacement, in the Spring of 1873, suspended prosecutions of the Klan in North Carolina and South Carolina, but prior to the election of 1874, he changed course and prosecuted the Klan. Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage".White Leaguers at Liberty Place. Attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874. During Grant's second term, the North retreated from Reconstruction, while southern conservative whites called Redeemers.
Formed armed groups, the Red Shirts. Who openly used violence, intimidation, voter fraud, and racist appeals to overturn Republican rule. Northern apathy toward blacks, the depressed economy and Grant's scandals made it politically difficult for the Grant administration to maintain support for Reconstruction. Power shifted when the House was taken over by the Democrats in the election of 1874. Grant ended the BrooksBaxter War.
Bringing Reconstruction in Arkansas to a peaceful conclusion. He sent troops to New Orleans in the wake of the Colfax massacre. And disputes over the election of Governor William Pitt Kellogg. Grant recalled Sheridan and most of the federal troops from Louisiana.
By 1875, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all but three Southern states. As violence against black Southerners escalated once more, Grant's Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont.
Told Republican Governor Adelbert Ames. Of Mississippi that the people were "tired of the autumnal outbreaks in the South", and declined to intervene directly, instead sending an emissary to negotiate a peaceful election.
Grant later regretted not issuing a proclamation to help Ames, having been told Republicans in Ohio would bolt the party if Grant intervened in Mississippi. Grant told Congress in January 1875 he could not see with indifference Union men or Republicans ostracized, persecuted, and murdered.
Congress refused to strengthen the laws against violence, but instead passed a sweeping law to guarantee blacks access to public facilities. Grant signed it as the Civil Rights Act of 1875. But there was little enforcement and the Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional in 1883.
In October 1876, Grant dispatched troops to South Carolina to keep Republican Governor Daniel Henry Chamberlain. Grant's Republican successor, President Rutherford B.
Was conciliatory toward the South, and favored "local control" of civil rights on the condition that Democrats make an honorary pledge to confirm the constitutional amendments that protected blacks. During Republican negotiations with Democrats. That Grant took no direct part in, the Republicans received the White House for Hayes in return for ending enforcement of racial equality for blacks and removing federal troops from the last three states. As promised, Hayes withdrew federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, which marked the end of Reconstruction.The item "PRESIDENT & GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT #534 2018 ESI CIVIL WAR PSA/DNA AUTOGRAPH" is in sale since Tuesday, August 4, 2020. This item is in the category "Collectibles\Autographs\Military".
The seller is "totalarchives" and is located in Eagle, Idaho. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay.